Tuesday, June 30, 2009

Indonesian Fleet Review 2009

Indonesian Fleet Review is a Static parade of Warships and Tallships from Indonesia and other participating countries by the port, allowing visitors to come aboard the ships (Openship).

The parade will begin from Bitung to The Ritzy Hotel at Manado City (Sailing Pass) where President of The Republic of Indonesia will kindly receive placard from all navy commander of the participating countries.

Following the Opening Ceremony by the President, the parade will sail back to Bitung where the Openship session is held.

Date : August 12 - 20, 2009
Venue : Bitung and Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia
Participating Countries : Warship & Tallship :
United States, Australia, Netherlands, Chile, India, Italy, Japan, Canada, South Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, France, Russia, Spain & Portugal

Warship :
Bangladesh, China, Philippines, England, Germany, Cambodia, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Peru, New Zealand, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Myanmar, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Egypt, UAE, Greece, Libya, South Africa, Morocco, Kuwait, Oman, Aljazair & Syria.

Supporting Activities
The following events and activities will be held to support The Indonesian Fleet Review (IFR) 2009. Dinner hosted by The Governor of North Sulawesi
Food Festival
International Maritime Seminar
Dinner hosted by Indonesian Navy Chief (KASAL)
Fireworks Festival
Sailing Pass
Lunch hosted by The President of The Republic of Indonesia
Inspection by The President of The Republic of Indonesia

source: www.sailbunaken2009.com

Tuesday, June 23, 2009

Indonesian Navy supremacy in 1960’s

Kejayaan TNI-AL di era 60-an
Indonesian Navy supremacy in 1960’s

In 1959 Indonesian Navy (ALRI) announcing program that known as Striving for Glorious Navy and become starting point to modernizing ALRI arms system and organization. Until 1965, ALRI having a significant progress on arms system. These was from the background of political confrontation in order to seized West Papua from the Dutch which feels it can’t be finished with diplomacy approach. Various Navies combat material from Eastern Europe strengthen ALRI and becoming ALRI as dominant power in that era.

ALRI fleet during that day was: Major unit (‘Swardorf’ class battle cruiser RI Irian, 12 frigates ‘Riga’ class, 7 destroyers, 17 corvettes, 12 ‘Whisky’ class submarine, 2 submarine chasers, 2 submarine carriers, 1 submarine depot and 15 amphibious vessels). Light forces (12 fast missile boats ‘Komar’ class, 18 gunboats, 3 Landing Ship Tank and 21 torpedo boats). Miscellaneous forces (25 maritime patrol boats, 10 motor launchers, 20 minesweepers, 4 survey vessels, 4 depot ships, 9 oilers and 10 auxiliaries).

Beside that, there are long-range bomber Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle, 18 maritime recon plane, Mi-4 helicopter and heavy amphibious vehicle including PT-76 amphibians tank for more than three Marine regiment and also various weapon and ammunition. All of these combat materiel was a part of ALRI purchase program from Soviet in 1958 totaled $126.201.700. With that strength, in early 1960’s ALRI considering as the largest Navy in Asia

There is many sea operation during West Papua freedom operation that also known as Trikora campaign. In early Trikora stage, ALRI fast-torpedo boats must be battle against Dutch destroyer, frigates and also Dutch Navy airplane at January 15, 1962. Commodore Jos Sudarso with Indonesian Navy Ship (KRI) Macan Tutul sank in that battle. The moment that remembers as Oceans Dedication Day is increasing the passion to seized West Papua with military action. The ALRI submarine successfully infiltrates the personnel from Army Special Forces to the Papua. In Trikora campaign, ALRI succeed to organizing Jayawijaya operation that will be the largest amphibians operation in Indonesian history. No more than 100 ships and 42.000 soldier including the reserve army and volunteer was prepared for this operation. These military show of force, pushing the Dutch government to the diplomation table and make agreement to transfer of sovereignty of West Papua to the Indonesian government.

Indonesian political confrontation against new-colonialism and imperialism continued in Dwikora campaign to oppose the establishment of Malaysian country. Even the element from Indonesian Armed Forces and volunteer has been prepared for this campaign, but the operation was only limited on infiltration assault to the Malaysian area. ALRI soldier from ALRI Commando Corps (KKO Marinir) and Navy Underwater Team (Kopaska) was involved in this phase. They are success to make sabotage and clandestine operation in Malaysia and Singapore, but some of them are capture by the Allied forces. Two Marine soldier Usman and Harun was got hanging punishment in Singapore, the other personnel released after the peace agreement was signed. Meanwhile, the other ALRI element making show of force to balanced the provocation from Allied country Navy forces.

Indonesian Air Forces Developing in Next 10 years

Indonesian Air Force has been arranging work program until 2024. Specially for next ten years some development that will be implement such as:
1. Added 1 combat squadron, 3 transport squadron, 1 tactical surveillance squadron and 1 helicopter squadron. That will be 8 combat squadron, 7 transport squadron, 2 tactical surveillance squadron and 4 helicopter squadron.
2. Added 3 radar units, becoming 20 radar unit (Satrad).
3. Consolidating 3 Paskhas Wing (equal to brigade) and adding 3 Paskhas new battalion in Medan (Yon-468), Biak (Yon-469) and one battalion in Kupang or Yogyakarta.
4. Increasing 2 B-type Air Force Base (AFB) as a main AFB that is Manuhua AFB in Biak, Papua and Wolter Monginsidi AFB in Kendari, South East Sulawesi. Establish C-type AFB in Tarakan, East Kalimantan and D-type AFB in Palangkaraya (Central Kalimantan), Lhokseumawe (Aceh) and Batam (Riau Islands).
5. Added personnel number from today 32.996 become 38.268 in 2014.
6. Replacing plane Hawk MK-53, OV-10 Bronco, F-5 Tiger, f-27, C 212, S-58T and Bell-47G.
7. Provisioning 8 batteries of short range Anti-Airplane Defense (PSU) for Air Defense point.

Indonesian Air Force 1st Command Operation (Koopsau I) with headquarter in Halim Perdanakusuma AFB, Jakarta commanding 19 AFB, three detachment, and 40 Air Force Post. The area was extending from Sabang until a half of Kalimantan and a half of Central Java. While Koopsau II with headquarters in Sultan Hasanuddin AFB, Makassar commanding 19 AFB, 4 detachment, and 38 Air Force post.

Two AFB in Koopsau I was A-type AFB. This Air Base lead by First Air Force Marshall (Marsma). The two Air Base are Halim Perdanakusuma AFB in Jakarta and Atang Sanjaya in Bogor. While in Koopsau II there are three A-type AFB that is Iswahyudi AFB in Madiun, Abdulrachman Saleh AFB in Malang and Sultan Hasanuddin AFB in Makassar. Especially for Adi Sucipto AFB in Yogyakarta, even commanding by First Air Force Marshall the control was under Air Force Training Command (Kodikau). In every A-type AFB there is one Paskhas battalion as the airfield defense unit.

Desire to have strong Air Force power absolutely become the aspiration of the Indonesian Air Force now and in the future. Guarding Indonesia air space with territorial sea area 7,9 billion km2 (include Economic Exclusive Zone) absolutely wasn’t easy mission to do. Need real budget and not only create thinking. Hope this thing not only repeatedly dream.

Where Are You Irian?

Dimanakah kau Irian?
Where are you Irian?

The history was dark. Not so clear, how its fate after September 30, 1965 movement (Gestapu). But there is a joke about Indonesian Navy Ships (KRI) Irian: nothing frightened by Irian include Karel Doorman – the Dutch Navy aircraft carrier. There is only one thing narrowing its guts, Hajji Syukri (famous scrap iron skipper in Surabaya).

Someone said it was scrap, another said that has been sold. But some reference shows that, KRI Irian turn into scrap iron during Sudomo become Navy Chief of Staff (KSAL). According to the senior journalist Hendro Subroto, these Swardorf class battle cruisers that only made four by the fabricants sale to Japan after its arms wipe out. “Whereas in Tanjung Priok are still two spare part warehouse. Yet because the maintenance handle by the Russian, after Gestapu we don’t have technician anymore,” Hendro said. Ships with 229 m length and 23,3 m width cruiser type with 1.050 people capacity, entering the Indonesian Navy fleet at October 1, 1962. Ship that buy from the Soviet Union fully armed with 12 cannon 6 inch caliber, 12 cannon 3,9 inch caliber, 32 anti aircraft defense 37mm caliber, 10 torpedo launcher 21 inch caliber, also 250 sea bomb.

At that time, KRI Irian was the largest battle ship in southern region of the world. This type was the last conventional cruiser that build for the Soviet Navy and stopped by Nikita Khrushchev – the Soviet President – considering as an dated type because the introduction of guided missile. It is the first time in history that Soviet sold a large battle cruiser like these to the other country. Indonesia was the first country to operate this kind of cruiser in Asia-Pacific region. Hot temperature and high humidity in tropical country like Indonesia making negative impact to the Navy fleet especially the ships that comes from Soviet which famous with its cold temperature.

With speed around 34,5 mile per hour, ship that moved by 2 shaft geared steam turbine can crossed the sea at least for 5.000 mile. Because its huge side with 15.450-ton dead weight, maximum weight 19.200 ton, surely KRI Irian shaking the Dutch defense during Trikora campaign and becoming Indonesian Navy proud until now. KRI Irian main duty is to find and destroy Dutch aircraft carrier Karel Doorman if they entering the Indonesian sea. But until Trikora was over, KRI Irian never found Karel Doorman. Some source from intelligence said that Karel Doorman was far hanging its anchor in Pacific Oceans and ordered not to enter Indonesian area.

Because the Indonesian Navy never have the fleet before, the crew try to operate these expensive and high technology ship with trial and error method. On November 1962 notes that one diesel engine was damaged because hydraulically collide when they try to up into surface, one destroyer was broke and 3 of 6 ship boiler was also damage. In 1964, this cruiser was fully lost its operational efficiency and decided to send KRI Irian to the Vladivostok for the maintenance. In March 1964, KRI Irian arrives in Dalzavod factory. Soviet technician and sailor were surprised looking the ship conditions and the ships crew obviously didn’t do so many little maintenance that was. They also interesting with small modification by the Indonesian Navy that changing clothes room into prayer room (something that will never happen in communist country). After the maintenance was finish, on August 1964 these ships strive to Surabaya with escort from Soviet Navy Destroyer. A year’s later change of government happen in Indonesia. Soeharto attention to the Navy was very different with Soekarno. KRI Irian leave useless in Surabaya, even sometimes this ship using as a prisoners for Soeharto political rival. In 1970 this useless ship begin to fill with water. No bodies care enough to save this cruiser ship. In 1972, KRI Irian was scrap in Taiwan with the reason cronical lack of spares. Unfortunately, where we have to find its short dedication to this country.

Sunday, June 21, 2009

Kekuatan Udara Indonesia tahun 60-an

Kekuatan Udara Indonesia tahun 60-an
Indonesian Air Power in 1960’s

Air power concept is making air potention consist of reconnaissance, air cover, interdiction, air strike, airborne and air landed (troops or logistic), and air defense. Indonesian Air Force modernization in early 1960’s has making Indonesia as the largest Air Power potention in South East Asia. Air Power structure organization as follows:
I.Operation Command (Koops)
1.Wing-001/ Airborne; Halim Perdanakusuma Air Force Base, Jakarta:
•Squadron-2/Light Transport C-47 Dakota
•Squadron-17/ VIP Transport
•C-47 VIP
•C-140 Jet Star
•Squadron-31/Heavy Transport C-130B
•Squadron-32/Heavy Transport Antonov-An-12B Hussein Sastranegara Air Force Base,Bandung
2.Wing-002/Tactical; Abdulrachman Saleh Air Force Base, Malang:
•Squadron-1/ Tactical Bomber B-25 Mitchell, B-26 Invader
•Squadron-3/ Tactical Fighter P-51 Mustang
•Squadron-5/ Amphibious Recon PBY-5A Catalina UF-1/UF-2 Albatross
3.Wing-003/ Strategic; Iswahyudi Air Force Base, Madiun:
•Squadron-21/ Tactical Bomber Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle (then give to the Navy)
•Squadron-41/ Strategic Bomber Tu-16
•Squadron-42/ Strategic Bomber Tu-16 KS (armored by air to ground missile AS-1 with 90 km shooting range).
4.Wing-004/ Helicopter; Atang Sanjaya Air Force Base, Bogor:
•Squadron-6/ Mi-4 helicopter
•Squadron-7/ Mi-1 Basic Training helicopter
•Squadron-8/ Mi-6 Harke with 100 troops capacity.
5.Wing-Garuda as reserve (in the future Wing-Garuda develop become National Air Wing Reserve with collecting general aviation and airlines potention).

II.National Air Defense Command (Kohanudnas)
1.Wing-300/Interceptor; Iswahyudi Air Force Base, Madiun a half in Kemayoran, Jakarta:
•Squadron-11/ Interceptor MiG-15/UTI Midget, Mig-17 Fresco, Mig-17/PF
•Squadron-12/ Interceptor Mig-19 Farmer (5 Mig-19 give to the Pakistani Air Force).
•Squadron-14/ Interceptor Mig-21/F Fishbed-C
•Squadron-210/ Radar
•Squadron-220/ Radar
•Squadron-230/ Radar
•Squadron-240/ Radar
•Squadron-250/ Radar
•Squadron-260/ Radar
•Squadron-270/ Radar

•Squadron-410/ Radar
•Squadron-420/ Radar
•Squadron-430/ Radar
•Squadron-440/ Radar
•Squadron-450/ Radar
•Squadron-460/ Radar
•Squadron-470/ Radar
This radar strategically placed to detect enemy airplane that direct to the eastern coast of Java and vital objects in some important city. Radar placement was in Surabaya, Jombang, Congot (southern Yogyakarta), and Jakarta; extend into Palembang, Natuna, Pangkalanbun, Banjarmasin and Balikpapan. Data that collect from the radar then process by radar center in Tanjung Kait, westernmost of Jakarta gulf. Then the result reported to the Sector Command (Kosek). To guide interceptor plane to the target in order to protect Jakarta and its environs, in Cisalak build Ground Control Interceptor (GCI) radar.
3.Wing-100/Guided Missile (Peluru Kendali)
•Squadron-01/ Guided Missile SA-2 Guideline in Tangerang
•Squadron-02/ Guided Missile SA-2 Guideline in Cilincing
•Squadron-03/ Guided Missile SA-2 Guideline in Cilodong
•Squadron-02/ Guided Missile SA-2 Guideline (Training Center) in Kalijati Air Force Base (prepared for Guided Missile SA-2 in Pondok Gede)
4.Army Air Defense Artillery. Some of Air Defense Artillery battalion having 37mm and 57mm canon made by Soviet, under command of National Air Defense Command (Kohanudnas).
5.Air Force Air Field Defense Troops (PPP). PPP weaponry systems include Triple Barrel Oerlikon GAI-D01 caliber 20mm Switzerland made and heavy machinegun DShK-38 caliber 12,7mm Soviet made.
Air Force Quick Reaction Troops (PGT). These forces will support air to ground operation (i.e. destroy enemy plane in the ground), perform airborne assault with another forces in armed forces and in peace time, PGT can support guarding Air Force Base and installations.

Air power not only operational potention, but also supporting potention like Training Center Command (Kodik) that supervise Wing-01 Training Center (Wingdik) consist of four squadron, three Depot (equal with Wing) under control of Logistic Command.

Pasukan Komando Indonesia

Pasukan Komando Indonesia
Indonesian Commando Forces

As a usual commando forces in the world, feels so indorent just to imagine it. Profile that commonly publish by the foreign media as a horrifying, brutal, sadist, and un-humane. British media call SAS (Special Air Service) as savage and sadistic. But, this controversial frame not endlessly inspiring Hollywood people.

Tight qualification with the missions that commonly entering the country most secret area, causing commando forces headquarter mostly looking as very limited and restricted area. Terrifying image strongly attached. These forces often make jealousy from other forces because their extraordinary facility, surely, one detachment with high demolition capability.

From the history, the idea to make “small” forces can be found from anti-thesis thinking of British military expert Liddell Hart (1920-1930) on thesis from Carl von Clausewitz, Prussian military thinker. Hart underlining flexibility factor and element of surprise from relatively small forces, special, well-armored, fast on the move also attack with enormous power and act as a core from every forces, than useless frontal attack from huge forces. Because a war objective, according to Hart, is to conquer enemy strength with minimize economy and human casualty.

History has also born important doctrine. Special Forces then support the country supremacy. For the US there is Navy Seal, Army Ranger, Delta Force and US Special Forces. British have Special Air Service (SAS) and Special Boat Service (SBS), Russia famous with their Spesnatz.

In Indonesia, this kind of forces was posses by army (Kopassus), navy (Marine) and air force (Paskhas). Inside of it, usually, there is a small unit with high combat ability. Kopassus call it Sat-81/ Anti-Terror; Marine legends Detachment Jala Mangkara (Denjaka) and Paskhas form Detachment Bravo-90.

Like other commando forces in the world, secrecy strongly covers Indonesian commando forces. Weren’t many known about the qualification, arms, and mission, also their movement. Then, beside these forces describe like an invisible ghost, their activity often smeared with bad issue. Whereas, it comes from some people demand, like a soldier which can’t deny his superior order.

A soldier, to confess as a commando soldier, must pass long and tiring road. Monthly, they train intensively on physic and mental, teach to fight and attack from the sea, land and air. The training was so hard and brutal sometimes making knee shake, permanently defect or even death. This was needed because a commando force is a main element in the land battle. Commando forces also using real bullet when they trained to know about the shooting accuracy and precision.

The personnel must also trained in very extreme conditions so that they will endure to the nature torture (hot and cold), first world war has been giving valuable learn to the war strategical expert not to underestimate weather when staging a forces. Just for reminding, 60.000 soldier died coldness before and after war in Alpen Mountain during First World War. Also in Second World War, when astonishing Hitler’s armed forces must retreat and defeated in Russian land because the German commander is to confident and miscalculate about the extreme weather that happen in Russia.

Sunday, June 14, 2009

Wing-1 Paskhas TNI-AU

Wing-1/Hardha Marutha Paskhas TNI-AU
1st Wing/Hardha Marutha Air Force Special Forces Corps

Wing-1 Paskhas is an operational unit equal with regiment that under Air Force Special Forces Corps (Korpaskhasau) supervision. Wing-1 symbol was Hardha Marutha, which get from Sanskrit language. “Hardha” mean sacred while “Marutha” mean wind. In this symbol implement that these forces will have quick reaction to cover every area in Nusantara. Motto for Wing-1 is “act right and fast”

Wing-1 headquarter was in Halim Perdanakusuma, Jakarta and commanding Paskhas unit in western region of Indonesia starting from 461/Cakra Baskara and 467/Hardha Dedali battalion in Jakarta, 462/Pulanggeni battalion in Pekanbaru, 465/Brajamusti in Pontianak, A (independent / BS) company in Medan, B (BS) company in Kalijati, G (BS) company in Lhokseumawe, H (BS) company in Banda Aceh. In future plan, the A company in Medan will advanced become 468 battalion in Polonia Air Force Base. Ideally, Wing-1 Paskhas needs 2.500 personnel for its organization.

Wing-1 Paskhas personnel as an integral part of Air Force having their own specialty. This specialty was on duty that they are facing. Paskhas personnel having qualification and special ability to protect, defense and operate Air Field facilities. Air Force having high technology weapons system that becomes vital object to destroy by enemy forces.

Basic qualification for Paskhas personnel was Para-Commando; other qualification added based on his specialty. As Combat Control team (CCT) they have combat free fall ability, scuba diving and combat climber. CCT must be able to infiltrate from three media aspects (sea, air, land). Beside that, this team personnel must have one of the air aspect specialization such as Air Traffic Controller (PLLU), Meteorology (Meteo), Electronic-Communication (Komlek), Combat Field Engineer (Zeni), Intelligence, Fire Fighter (PK), Ground handling, Petroleum affairs (Permi), and Combat-Health affairs (Keslap). For free fall qualification they must brave enough to jump high and open his parachute in minimum high. Airborne technique that used was HALO (High Altitude Low Opening) or HAHO (High Altitude High Opening) with jump around 20.000 feet above sea level.

CCT also having qualification to direct fighter plane to bombing or shooting the target from the ground (Ground Forward Air Control/GFAC). This role was very important in battle because Air Support must be precise on time and target. Wing-1 personnel must be able to use IT and to communicate with multimedia tools. Beside of that, they also demanding to have combat intelligence ability as a collection board (Bapul) for higher command or other side that needed. For example, informing about flight facilities before plane arrived, visibility, wind speed and direction, temperature and air humidity also height and cloud type. This was very important factor in bombing target and for the airborne process. All the personnel also having Combat-Field Engineer (include pioneer, rope, etc), Air Field Control (Dallan) to operate flight in some aerodrome. Air Traffic Control (PLLU), which can control flight traffic in their sector area. Petroleum Affairs (Permi) to know and testing the oil standard that fulfill the conditions and the way to fill the oil in to the airplane. This special qualification surely not having by the all-Indonesian armed forces soldier.

Because Paskhas was commando forces, they rarely involve many personnel in their operation. Paskhas also using unusual calls when they doing combat mission such as detachment, team and unit to difference them from regular forces. It must be honestly admitted that there is no commando forces like Paskhas in the world.

Saturday, June 13, 2009

Grup-1/Parakomando Kopassus

Grup-1/Parakomando Kopassus TNI-AD
1st Group/Para Commando Army Special Forces Command

Grup-1/Parakomando was a unit equal to regiment in other forces, that becomes a part of Army Special Forces Command (Kopassus). This group was establish at March 23, 1963 with early headquarter in Cijantung, East Jakarta with Major Infantry LB Murdani as the first commander. In 1981, this group was removing into Serang, Banten basic on the idea of Indonesian Armed Forces commander General M.Jusuf. In 1983, 11-combat detachment (Denpur-11) follows to Serang.

Including to this brilliant General, based on the history if there is an enemy forces that want to attack or occupying the Java island and Jakarta as the capital city of Indonesia they will be landed in Merak harbor that not far from Serang. The Dutch in 1700’s and Japan landed in 1943 support that theory. The enemy forces across Sunda straits from Sumatera and landed their army in Merak than attack into another area in Java. Placed of this elite group in Serang also based on fact that in Cilegon, Serang there is Krakatau Steel State Company that is very strategic steel industries for this country. This industry with strategically position in state policy giving material for producing weaponry for the armed forces and also for the Indonesia development process.

Motto for this group was Eka Wastu Baladika that created by first corporal Suyanto. This group having 1.274 personnel in three combat battalion Yon-11/Astu Seno Baladhika, Yon-12/Asabha Seno Baladhika and Yon-13/Thikkaviro Seno Baladhika. Every battalion having three companies. Every company split into three platoon, that every platoon having 39 personnel. Every platoon consists of three small unit calls team strength of 10 personnel.
Today Grup-1/Parako using small arms but effective like SS-1 and SS-2, SPG-1 grenade launcher, NVG, Sig Sauer P.226 pistol, Shotgun MOD M3 Super 90, Sniper Accuracy International 7,62 mm and Machinegun Ultimax 100. Each Kopassus personnel also equipped with black FS dagger knife made by Carl Schlieper Germany.
Because Kopassus is a special forces, in every combat mission they perform, personnel that involve relatively small, not many like other regular infantry forces. Kopassus not using conventional measure start from platoon until battalion. Kopassus rarely (maybe never) doing combat operation with strength of one battalion at once. With this composition, Kopassus can be flexible in determine personnel number; can be more than regiment size (around 2.000) or less than that.

Linud Kostrad

Brigade Infanteri Lintas Udara TNI-AD
Army Airborne Infantry Brigade

Indonesian army today has three airborne infantry brigade (Brigif Linud). This three brigade was divided into two Army Strategic Reserve Command (Kostrad) division. The 3rd/Tri Budi Mahasakti and 17th/Kujang-1 were under Kostrad 1st Division Command. 17th Airborne Brigade having three battalion which is 305/Tengkorak in Karawang, 328/Dirgahayu in Cilodong and 330/Tri Dharma in Cicalengka. Kostrad 2nd Division was command 18th Airborne Brigade that consists of 501/Bajra Yudha in Madiun, 502/Ujwala Yudha in Malang and 503/Mayangkara in Mojokerto. This 17th and 18th airborne brigade was famous and becoming military legend in Indonesia with their many combat experiences.

The basic ideas for establish of the army airborne battalion began in early 1960’s when Indonesian armed forces were prepared for the Trikora operation in West Papua. The supreme commander of Trikora mission decided to infiltrate troops into Papua from sea and airborne landing. Then army trains this first three battalion to have airborne qualification in armed forces airborne training center in Margahayu Air Force Base in Bandung. This three battalion was Yon-328 from Siliwangi division, Yon-454 from Diponegoro battalion and Yon-530 from Brawijaya division. Each of this battalion making one airborne operation in Papua together with the para-commando forces from the army (RPKAD) and air force (PGT). They were dropped by parachute in the middle of the night in the jungle near small city in Papua.

After Trikora campaign, all three battalion also involve in Dwikora confrontation against the allied forces in North Kalimantan. They make some battle contact with joint forces from British, Australia, New Zealand, Gurkha and Malaysia along North Kalimantan border. In the 70’s this three airborne battalion also get Raider qualification with combat training that held in Battle Training Center (BTC) in Purworejo. This qualification making new combat skills calls Airborne-Raider (Raider Para). Unlike other regular infantry battalion this three battalion also having anti-guerilla specification which they learn from their combat experience against Indonesia separatism rebels. In 1975, this three airborne battalion becoming striking forces and also the first Indonesian troops that landed in Dili and Baucau, East Timor during Seroja operation. Just like Trikora operation, this three battalion together with Kopasandha and Kopasgat was landed by the parachute from the plane while the Marine troops was landed in Dili coast.

In the next army reorganize, Yon-328/Para and Yon-530/Para (now becomes Yonif-502) was no longer have Raider qualification. This two battalion also removing from the Military Area Command (Kodam) to the Kostrad 1st and 2nd Division controls. Yonif-454 was still under Diponegoro command with new name Yonif-401/Banteng Raider and keeps the Raider qualification. In 2003 this battalion changes into Yonif-400/Raider together with other nine infantry battalion to make new-raider battalion, but this new-raider battalion wasn’t have airborne ability.

The best personnel from the airborne battalion also recruited become army special forces (Kopassus) with added commando qualification in commando training center in Batujajar. The airborne brigade also becoming main part of the armed forces Rapid Reaction Strike Forces (PPRC) together with troops from the marine. In the army, airborne become high-ranking hierarchy in the army structure. Most of the airborne officer lead the strategically position in the Indonesian army or armed forces. The sixth Indonesian president, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono was former 17th Airborne Brigade commander from 1993-1994.

Brimob Polri

Korps Brigade Mobil (Brimob) Polri
Indonesian Police Mobile Brigade Corps

In early Indonesian independence day, Indonesian Police has a unit calls special police. This special police forces becoming part of Indonesian Armed Forces together with People Security Board (BKR), Youth Forces, Police Fighter Forces, Hizbullah and many other forces that build under people iniciative. Like strengthen the name of special, this police special forces escape from Japanese armored release. Whereas Japan release all other forces weapon, not remainder the weapon that belong to regular police.
After the independence announcement, state conditions demanding police unit to battle in every front and also to control security conditions and public safety. Looking for this potention, Special Police Forces was merged becomes ones in November 14, 1946. This unit calls Mobile Brigade or Mobrig.

When independence war against the Dutch, Mobrig has special forces. Although they are native Indonesian but this unit using many foreign terminology. Because this special forces headed to US and having their basic techniques from there. Beside getting term of ‘Ranger’, this special forces having motto ‘we strike’. This unit chose as a symbol of eagle that struck the lightning. This unit strengthens their qualification as an anti-terror unit.

During the Trikora campaign, the police dispatched a detachment from their Ranger regiment, an elite formation created in March 1962 from a cadre trained by the US Army Special Forces and equipped with the US AR-15 automatic rifle. The Ranger cadre was trained by the US Army Special Forces Group 1 in Okinawa. In a fit of linguistic nationalism, Soekarno later insisted that the police drop the Ranger designation and adopt the closest Indonesian equivalent, Pelopor. Motto “we strike” that usually tagged in personnel chest was also removal. While Mobile Brigade changes become Brigade Mobil (Brimob).

Brimob headquartered taking place in Kelapa Dua, Depok and Brimob commander was two star police general. Brimob having three unit (equal to regiment in other forces) and each unit was lead by Police Colonel. Unit-1 is Gegana with 1.000 personnel, Unit-2 and 3 are unit with Pelopor qualification. Unit 2 and 3 each having around 3.000 personnel. A Gegana personnel was taken from the selected unit 2 and 3 personnel and giving other special qualification like bomb defusing and counter terror. Some of the Pelopor personnel having parachute jumping qualification to support their mission.

Densus-88 Polri

Detasemen Khusus-88 / Anti Teror Polri
88-Special Detachment / Anti-Terror

The establishment of 88-Special Detachment / Anti Terror (Densus-88) is an effort from the Indonesian government and Indonesian Police (Polri) to fight against terrorism action that has been more globalize. Indonesia as a country with over 200 billion people and the biggest moslem country in the world not escaped from attack by terrorism network. The bombing suicide mission has been successfully execute three massive attacks on Bali in 2003, Marriot Hotel in 2003, and Australian embassy in 2004.

Based in this, US and Australia government giving support to the Polri to build special unit that focus on anti-terror. In 2002, US government gives 12 billion dollar for the first phase and 6 until 12 billion in the second phase on 2005.

The purpose of this fund support is to build independent anti-terror team belong to Polri that can finished all the terrorism act, begins from bombing, hostage rescue, quick reaction ability until armed assault. In early plan, Densus-88 will fully operate in 2005 with around 400 personnel. For the future, Densus-88 will have unit in every Police Area Command (Polda) in all Indonesia provinces. Before that, Densus-88 also has a unit in Police Headquartered level as a center of police anti-terror network in Indonesia.

The specific anti-terror ability that this unit have is they work with police standard procedure begins from early action, gathering intelligence information until taking final action like executing and capturing the terrorism suspect dead or alive. These units also cooperate with other intelligence unit in State Intelligence Board (BIN) and also collect information from the local citizens. These detachments have three team that is investigation, intelligence and assault team.

Densus-88 training held in Megamendung, West Java in Police Criminal and Resersir Training Center. In this area build new training facilities from US fund. That facilities include firing range, knockdown house, classroom and other building fully equip with tools to do various training method. Personnel of Densus-88 that train there, at least need 30.000 bullets along training period.

Tuesday, June 9, 2009


Gegana Unit / Indonesian Police Mobile Brigade Corps
Sat-Gegana Korbrimob Polri

If US have Bomb Squad, Indonesia has Gegana. With special ability that they have, it wasn’t wrong that Gegana could be said as special police unit. As a special unit, absolutely there is special reason behind Gegana establish. This reason also implied behind the name of Gegana. When it was borne, Gegana is set for anti hijacking airplane in Indonesia. For that reason the founder of Gegana taking Sanskrit language Gegono which mean ‘sky’. Gegana also using swallow bird as the unit symbol.

When is a bomb threat, people must be looking for 1st unit Gegana, Brimob. This special unit will be directly face with the bomb. Although looking as a front squad, Gegana is different with other special unit/forces. If other special unit/forces was front line strength, Gegana is the last fortress. This action is parallel with police main duty to persuade people not to do criminal crime. If the situation feel dangered and can’t be compromised, then Gegana will take some action.

There is three main equipment that Gegana using as bomb defusing specialist, which is body-armored or bomb suit, robot calls Hobos and special car (Explosive Ordnance Disposal). About bomb-terror, Gegana function is to defusing bomb. For the principal, Gegana duty is against terror not anti-terror. If against terror, the terror has already shown. This what make Gegana different with anti-terror unit.

Beside that, Gegana is multi-function special unit. Gegana personnel having high qualification to act against high intensity crisis situation. This high qualification make Gegana personnel is calling to do importance duty. Some of the duties make Gegana personnel in front position. In special condition, Gegana personnel must to fight side by side with the Indonesian Armed Forces against separatist movement or taking a part in military operation all over Indonesia. Some of the Gegana mission wasn’t publish for public.

Gegana having 4 detachments. Detachment A: intelligence and mobile-intelligence. Detachment B: bomb defusing specialist (Jihandak), Detachment C: Anti-Terror and Detachment D: Support (equipment and tools). Today, Gegana having around 1.000 well-trained personnel. Gegana personnel have success create their own bomb calls GPE (Gegana Plastic Explosive) that has more powerful effect than C-4 and can’t be detection like usual bomb. Gegana also training other special forces from police or Indonesian Armed Forces about bomb defusing. The Indonesian Special Forces that have been train by Gegana is Gultor-81 Kopassus, Denjaka TNI-AL and Den-Bravo Paskhas TNI-AU


Pasukan Pemukul Reaksi Cepat (PPRC) TNI
Rapid Reaction Strike Force

From its name we already know that Rapid Reaction Strike Force (PPRC) was not same like other regular forces. This force has ability to do combat operation, anytime needed and anywhere in all region of this country. This force is designed for 24 hours readiness.
PPRC is Indonesian armed forces joint command task force from the army, navy, air force and Marine Corps, that main duty is quickly destroy enemy strength. These forces will act for the first time to the enemy attack or threat in specific trouble spot area. PPRC will localize enemy forces to take over of the area that has been occupied by the enemy. They will hold and organize enemy forces in some land area. After that, these forces giving time and space for the higher command or operational command to take importance action.

This force was build in 1985 and directly under command of Indonesian Armed Forces commander. While the PPRC command control is under Army Strategic Reserve Command (Kostrad). Because of that, the commander of this forces usually rotate every two years between Commander of Kostrad 1st and 2nd Infantry Division. Kostrad 1st Division headquartered in Cilodong, West Java to cover Indonesian western region while 2nd Infantry Division headquartered in Malang, East Java to cover eastern region. All the vital objects and area from Sabang until Merauke has already known by PPRC. If needed, PPRC can also have support from the armed forces special forces like Kopassus and Paskhas but this para-commando forces will act only as a pioneer or airborne control.

In real combat mission, these forces only have ten days in operation area and will be continued by other regular forces. Because of that, if they not ordered to retreat in ten days, they wasn’t PPRC anymore but the forces which doing combat operation under control of Indonesian Armed Forces commander for operation command (Koops TNI). Today, PPRC have two brigade strength with almost 6.350 personnel. PPRC consist of land taskforce (Airborne Brigade), sea taskforce (Navy ships and Marine brigade) and air task force (transport plane and fighter interceptor plane). In military barracks, PPRC is like stand guard. The other personnel can sleep, but PPRC must be ready anytime that can be departed to the trouble area within 1 x 24 hours.

Monday, June 8, 2009

Den-Bravo 90

Detasemen Bravo-90 Paskhas TNI-AU
Bravo-90 Detachment

Detachment Bravo 90 (Bravo-90 Detachment) is the newest elite unit in the Indonesian Special Forces groups. Bravo, which means the best or excellent, was formed in limited ways within the Air Force Special Forces Corps (Kopaskhasau). The concept of this unit follows General Guilio Douchets war strategy: it is easier and more effective to destroy enemies air power by destroying its ground installations and armories than by conducting air combats. Based on this thinking, Bravo 90 is directed to perform intelligence in support of air operations, neutralize all enemies potential air power, and other special operations as instructed by the Armed Forces Commander.
Bravo-90 has a specialty on anti airplane hijacking (Atbara) and anti-terror air aspects. Bravo qualified their personnel with many advanced combat special qualification such as combat free fall, scuba diving, airborne technique HALO (High Altitude Low Opening) or HAHO (High Altitude High Opening), combat advanced airborne, three aspect CCT (sea, air, land), first class shooting, advanced commando, various fighting skills, etc. Bravo personnel using uniform full gears with the newest weapon.
Bravo personnel were recruited from the best graduates of Para-Commando trainings in the Air Force. About 5-10 graduates are recruited for this elite unit. To train its anti-terror techniques, the unit also trains at Army Sat-81 Gultor GMF facility for airplane hostage rescue trainings, Navy Denjaka facility for offshore airfields infiltration and attack trainings, Navy Kopaska facility for underwater demolition trainings, and Polices Gegana facility for anti-bomb unit trainings

Bravo has three team that calls alpha1 until 3. Alpha 1 having specialty on intelligence. Alpha 2 on jungle/city warfare and Alpha 3 on counter terrorism. Beside that Bravo also known Special team. This team is a joint personnel, which had non-air aspect qualification such as UDT (Underwater Demolition Team), EOD (Explosive Ordnance Disposal), and also frogmen. In this team also settle trainer team that responsible for train and educate Bravo personnel.

Ideally Bravo must have 256 personnel or one detachment and lead by Lieutenant Colonel following their top organization structure. Until today Bravo using at least four tactical vehicle for their daily operation. The four combat tactical vehicle is Dirgantara Military Vehicle (DMV-30T) Bravo1, DMV-30A Bravo2 (armored version), Glover Webb and Land Rover Defender MRCV (multi role combat vehicle). Bravo using light green camouflage to identified their self. Bravo motto is Catya Wihikan Awacyama Kapala which meaning is loyal, skilled and success.

Paskhas TNI-AU

Korps Pasukan Khas TNI-AU
Indonesian Air Force Special Forces Corps

The Indonesian Air Force (IAF) has its own elite unit, called Air Force Special Forces Corps (Paskhas). Just like any other elite unit in the Army and Navy, Paskhas is the ground combat unit that is capable to operate on land, sea, and air. The difference is that Paskhas is trained to conquer and defend airfields from enemy, and then prepare the airfields to be able to facilitate friendly airplanes to land. This capability is called Front Air Base Establishment and Management Operation (OP3UD). Paskhas as the only Air Force special forces and having the most combat qualification in the world has many air aspect combat ability such as combat control team, air fields control, combat SAR, jump master, ground forward air control and they can also rules as Air Traffic Controller (ATC).
The history of Paskhas as the first airborne troops is almost as old as the Republic of Indonesia. Airborne infiltration operation by 14 paratroopers on October 17, 1947 in Kotawaringin, Kalimantan, is marked as the birth date of Paskhas. In the early years of Indonesian Air Force (established on April 9, 1946), these airborne units are called Air Field Defense Troops (PPP). In April 1952, the Quick-Reaction Troops (PGT) was also established to strengthen the IAF.
As of 1952, the IAF ground units consisted of PPP, PGT, and PSU (Air Defense Unit). On October 15, 1962, PPP and PGT were organized into Air Fields Defense Command (Koppau). Later on May 17, 1966, Koppau was renamed to Quick-Reaction Troops Command (Kopasgat). There were three Kopasgat regiments, each located in Bandung, Jakarta and Surabaya. Kopasgat was transformed into Special Forces Center in 1985 before became Paskhas on July 7, 1997 based on the official decision of Indonesian Armed Forces Commander.
Today Paskhas has strength of around 6,000 personnel. Every Paskhas personnel must have Para-Commando qualification then added by special air aspects qualification based on his specialization. Paskhas famous with their orange beret that they used from this forces still with name Kopasgat in the mid of 1960’s. Paskhas motto is Karmanye Vadikaraste Mafalesu Kadatjana which meaning is working without hoping any reward. Every Paskhas personnel also equipped with white Commando dagger made from Germany. Orange beret and Commando dagger becoming trademark of this special forces. Paskhas also known with its light green camouflage uniform call Commando Stripe with a stretch out straight motif like moss-covered wooden, that’s very famous during Seroja operation in East Timor.
There is a plan to expand Paskhas unit into 10 or 11 battalion with twice as many personnel as what they are today. Until now, the placement of Paskhas still follows the organization of IAF weapon system, in particular the combat and support-combat airplanes. In other words, wherever there is an IAF main airbase, ideally there is a Paskhas battalion as the airfield defense unit.

Tuesday, June 2, 2009


Regu Pandu Tempur (Rupanpur) Korps Marinir
Marine Corps Combat Guide Team

Marine Combat Guide Team (Rupanpur) used to named Marine Field Investigate Team. Rupanpur is special forces for the Marine infantry battalion. Personnel of Rupanpur come from Marine non-officer infantry soldier that has already fulfilled tight selection in each battalion including intelligentsia, mentally and also physically test. They are trained in Marine Combat Training Center (Puslatpur), Antralina, Sukabumi. The trainer there comes from Marine Amphibi Reconnaissance Batallion (IPAM) instructure that has many experience training Marine special forces.

In first week all the training participants has done several combat field problem such as land tactical operations, combat patrol and contact drill. Beside that, they also trained individual combat rules that include creep, crawl on hands and knees, roll, grenade throw, and throwing axis and knife. Field knowledge such as: field map reading knowledge and Global Positioning System include map sign identification, pointing place / coordinate, distribute and give topography map number.

Along the second week they learn about camouflage, protection, find a track and mountaineering, shooting ability and sniper. Rupanpur also has special knowledge like airborne control, air mobility by helicopter (helicopterborne), demolition, sabotage, kidnapped, interrogation endurance, escaping technique and also swimming problem, cross-country and speed mars.

The main duty of this team is to guide the amphibious task forces that will be landed in the beach, but if they got problem during that circumstances they giving order to finish it by themselves including to destroy enemy forces and facilities.


Batalyon Intai Para Amfibi (Yon IPAM) Korps Marinir
Para Amphibi Reconnaissance Batallion

Yon IPAM is an elite unit in the Marine Corps; this unit is used to be named Kipam (Komando Intai Para Amfibi – Para Amphibious Reconnaissance Command). Yon IPAM has a main duty to establish and serve strength and ability to amphibious element and also land and beach reconnaissance. Beside that Yon IPAM have special operation duty in amphibious landing, beach clearance by navy unit and many other operations duty.

This unit always operates in small strength 5 to 7 personnel and has many combat experiences across the nations. To obtain a certification of amphibious reconnaissance, a regular Marine has to first pass a tough selection and then pass the nine-month rigorous training program that contains the most difficult curriculum. Thus, this amphibious recon certificate is very similar to commando certificate in Kopassus.

To become a Yontaifib personnel, a candidate is volunteer and selected from the Marine Corps every elements (infantry, cavalry, artillery, and marine base defense battalion). They must already fulfilled the thorough mental and physical requirements, and at least has actively served the corps for two years. The certification of amphibious reconnaissance is so difficult that the passing rate of these candidates in each class is only ten percent.

One of the most challenging exercises in this certification program is to swim underwater for three kilometers with the hands and feet are all tied. Because they are tied, the swimmer has to mimic the way dolphins swim. This swimming style is training for anticipation of being caught by the enemies and trying to escape by swimming in the river or sea. The escape experience by U.S. Navy Seal members in the Vietnam War is the basis for this training

After graduate from the training, each personnel will get Trimedia Brevet. Before getting the brevet, all the IPAM students must follow traditional long-range swimming across Madura channel. Nowadays Yon IPAM has two battalion; each of them is under 1st and 2nd Marine Division command. Taifib soldier aproximately around 1.400 personnel with 85% composition is combatan. Taifib qualification is not only as combat soldier but also have a role as reliable combat intelligence unit. Every Taifib personnel have four aspects qualification on sea, air, land and underwater plus anti-terror ability.

Korps Marinir

Korps Marinir TNI-AL
Indonesian Marine Corps

Born on November 15, 1945, the Marine Corps (Kormar) are the Indonesian Navys ground troops. The corps has the duties of being the main forces in amphibious combat operations and, defensively, being the quick reaction forces in emergency situation to defend the beach fronts from enemies invasion.

Marine Corps is one of the Indonesian Navy main commands. In Navy Structure, Kormar is main command equally with Eastern fleet, Western fleet, Navy Academy, Navy School of Command and Cross Sea Military Command. The Commander of Marine Corps is two stars Major General (Marine). Kormar also have famous nickname as Sea Ghost, this corps using purple beret to identify their self. This color was getting from javanese legend that queen of southern sea always using purple color for his dress. Officially, Marine combat area is around 8 km from the beach because that’s the main area to do amphibious landed operation. If marine need to battle far from that area its must be under jurisdiction from land task force commander where the command was under the army.

Kormar has been active in various military operations in Indonesia. One of the biggest amphibious military operations was Operation Jayawijaya in which thousands of marines will be landed in West Irian in the early 60s as a part of Trikora campaign to free West Irian from Dutch occupation. Kormar also involve in Dwikora campaign where their two best personnels Usman and Harun got death punishment in Singapore court after both of them successfully explode a hotel in center of Singapore. During that time Kormar using KKO-AL (Navy Commando Unit) as their corps name but in 1975, KKO back to using Marine Corps as their name. Kormar also becoming Indonesian first troops that landed in East Timor during Seroja and battle there with other forces.

In 2005-2025 a plan was proposed to expand the Kormar from the current strength of 17,000 personnel. Based on this plan, every Marine Division will have three combat brigades: the Infantry, Cavalry, and Artillery and will be supported by one Combat Support Regiment and one Administration Support Regiment. The expansion will create three Marine divisions: Surabaya for Eastern area command, Jakarta for Central area command, and Rate Island in Lampung for Western area command. Kormar also will have 2 independent marine brigades, 1 marine training command, 5 marine bases and 11 marine battalion for navy base defense. The expansion also will increase the strength of Kormar to 70,000 personnel.

Marine corps having 417 armored vehicle, but 307-armored vehicle was over 30 years of age, 37 vehicles between 21-30 years and only 71 is a new vehicle between 1-10 years. Today Marine having around 17.000 personnel, this condition making some jokes in Indonesian military circle that with the amount of island in Indonesia is also around 17.000 and making this country as the largest archipelago in the world, every Marine soldier must guarding one island in Indonesia.


Jala Mangkara Detachment
Detasemen Jala Mangkara TNI-AL

The history of Jala Mengkara Detachment (Denjaka) started on November 4, 1982 when the Indonesian Navy Chief of Staff formed a unit called Navy Special Forces (Pasusla). The existence of Pasusla was urgently needed to counter the terrorism activities in the sea.
In the initial phase, 70 personnel from Marine Amphibious Reconnaissance Battalion (Yon IPAM) and Navy Underwater Special Forces Command (Kopaska) were recruited to form Pasusla. The trainings for this new unit were under the command of Western Fleet commander with the assistance from the Marine Corps commander. The Navy chief of staff was the operational commander for Pasusla. Western Fleet Command Headquarter became the unit’s base. Denjaka personnel must graduate from Anti Terror Sea Aspect course (PTAL) for 6 months and get Navy Anti terror brevet. This course was joining knowledge from Navy Underwater Team (Kopaska) and Marine Reconnaissance Unit (Taifib).
Upon further development of this unit, Navy chief of staff requested Indonesian Armed Forces commander to form Denjaka. The armed forces commander agreed to this request and since then Denjaka became the Naval Anti-Terror Unit. According to Navy chief of staff direction, Denjaka is a Marines special unit that has the responsibilities to be capable to conduct anti-terror, anti-sabotages, and naval clandestine operations under direct command of armed forces commander. They also can do various limited combat operation that ordered by the Navy chief. Today Denjaka placed somewhere in Cilandak Marine base. This area was very restricted and not many people can enter there.
Denjaka recruitment process started after the conclusion of Para and Commando trainings. Before enrolling in Denjaka training, the troop must have been qualified to become an amphibious surveillance unit member. In its operation, this special forces unit must be able to reach the operational target via sea, underwater, or airborne. Denjaka also have special qualification as a combat swimmer. This unit has been conducting several joint-practices with the US Navy SEAL teams. Denjaka was very strict on publicity, many of Denjaka mission wasn’t formally recorded in Navy headquarter. Denjaka structure consists of 1 base detachment, 1 tactical team and 3 combat team calls Alpha, Bravo and Charlie.


Komando Pasukan Katak (Kopaska) TNI-AL
Navy Underwater Special Forces Command

Navy Underwater Special Forces Command or Kopaska is one-way ticket command. In the meaning that this “frogmen” must succeed to do their mission no matter what it’s cost including sacrificing their own life. Motto for this special navy forces is Tan Hana Wighna Tan Sirna which meaning, “There is no obstacle that we can’t conquer”
Kopaska was formed on March 31 1962 by President Sukarno to help his campaign in Irian Jaya. In that campaign Kopaska ordered to be human torpedoes similar to Japanese 'kamikaze' troops. In doing so they rode the torpedo, guided it until hit the enemy's ship. The early U.S. Navy Underwater Demolition Teams (UDT) and modern Navy SEAL Teams heavily influence KOPASKA. This foundation was built when early KOPASKA members were sent to the United States for training with the UDTs. That tradition continues today as each year a few men from the unit travel to Coronado, California and Norfolk, Virginia to participate in SEAL training.
Today, unit strength is approximately 300 men, divided into two groups. One is attached to western fleet, based on Pondok Dayung, Jakarta and the other one is attached to eastern fleet, based on Surabaya, East Java. Their main duty is underwater demolition which consists of raiding enemy's ships and bases, destroying main underwater installations, beach reconnaissance, prisoner snatches, and preparing beaches for larger naval amphibious operations. In peace time the unit deploys seven man teams to serve as security personnel for VIPs. Primary among these duties are the escort and personal security of the Indonesian president and vice president. They are also responsible for limited search-and-rescue duties and have deployed as part of United Nations peace forces.
Kopaska personnel also have brevet from the US Navy Seal that indicating Kopaska having same ability and qualification with that legendary special forces. Every Kopaska personnel must have special airborne qualification known as CRRC (Combat Raiding Rubber Craft). Kopaska weapon files such as SIG Sauer P.226, Sea Raider (sea combat vehicle), AK-47, MP-5, FN Minimi and GPMG.
Recruitment for the unit is held once a year and draws exclusively on navy personnel (not from the marines). The maximum age of recruits are no more than 30 years. The length of recruitment is seven months. Usually from 700-1500 men who signed up only 15-20 men will pass the initial selection. After the selection the men who pass will undergo four-phase continual training. The first phase of this is one week of physical training (Hell Week), the second phase is basic underwater training, the third phase is commando training, and the fourth phase is parachute training. In the end from 15-20 men, usually only five or six make it and become Kopaska.

Raider Batallion

Raider Infantry Batallion
Yonif Raider TNI-AD

Raiders Infantry Battalions were inaugurated in 2003. The first ten infantry battalions (Yonif) that are Raiders-qualified were formed from eight Kodam's (Military Territorial Command) assault infantry battalions and two Kostrad's non-airborne infantry battalions. Later in 2007, another two battalions (Yonif-514 and Yonif-733) also trained as raider qualification battalions.

Raider now becomes the biggest special forces in Indonesia with almost 10.000 personnel. But not like the old Raider, the new Raider battalion doesn’t have airborne qualification. Each Raiders battalion has strength of 747 personnel. They receive six-month intensive education and special trainings on modern combat, anti-guerilla, and non-conventional war to have a high standard qualification. Each battalion is trained to have the combat ability of three regular infantry battalion, like combat ambush and air mobility (i.e. assault and rappelling from the helicopter). Every Raider battalions also equipped with modified GMC combat tactical vehicle.

To increase its combat ability, 50 personnel from each battalion will be trained further by Kopassus (Indonesian Army Special Force) on anti-terror and other special combat intelligence technique. The first combat duty for the new Raider battalions is when they sent to the Aceh to battle against the Aceh Separatist Movement. In Aceh, raider has exceptional result such as shoot in death of the GAM commander, Ishak Daud.

The new eleven Raiders battalion are:
• Yonif Linud 100/Prajurit Setia becomes Yonif 100/Raider Kodam Bukit Barisan;
• Yonif 145/Bhakti Nagara becomes Yonif 200/Raider Kodam Sriwijaya;
• Yonif 327/Brajawijaya becomes Yonif 300/Raider Kodam Siliwangi;
• Yonif 401/ Banteng Raider becomes Yonif 400/Raider Kodam Diponegoro;
• Yonif 507/Sikatan becomes Yonif 500/Raider Kodam Brawijaya;
• Yonif 612/Modang Manggar becomes Yonif 600/Raider Kodam Tanjungpura;
• Yonif 700/Wira Yudha Sakti becomes Yonif 700/Raider Kodam Wirabuana;
• Yonif 741/ Satya Bhakti becomes Yonif 900/Raider Kodam Udayana;
• Yonif 323/ Buaya Putih Kostrad becomes Yonif 323/Raider Kostrad 1st Division;
• Yonif 412/Bharata Eka Sakti Kostrad becomes Yonif 412/Raider Kostrad 2nd Divison;
• Yonif 514/Sabbada Yudha becomes Yonif 514/Raider prepared for Kostrad 3rd Division;
• Yonif 733/Masariku becomes Yonif 733/Raider Kodam Pattimura.


Kompi Intai Tempur (Kitaipur) Kostrad
Combat Reconnaissance Company

The Combat Reconnaissance Company (Kitaipur) is the newest Kostrad special forces. This unit was formed in 2001 to demolish Aceh Separatist Movement (GAM). In the beginning this unit only have one platoon known as Combat Reconnaissance Platoon (Tontaipur) for its squad but now after Kostrad success trained the other three platoons this unit have fully one company for its daily operation.

This unit formed based on army military experience that shows that mostly unit maneuver when battle happen is on platoon and company level. To have enemy movement info has becomes the most important thing to win a war. This fact is becoming basic idea to build this unit. Kostrad tactical reconnaissance unit but can also becomes elements that destroy enemy troops.

After five-month intensive trainings, 97 personnel selected from the 9th and the 13th Infantry Brigades became the first troops for this elite unit. Personnel for this unit also must have airborne qualification. For that reason, the personnel that not have airborne qualification must have airborne training in the army special forces training center in Batujajar, West Java. To train each Komtaipur platoon, Kostrad need almost one billion rupiahs to make sure that this unit have special qualification and also special weapons for each personnel.

Just as the name implies, Kitaipur will be sent to do surveillance and reconnaissance missions behind enemy lines and destroy enemy’s strategic installations. Some of the equipments that these troops carry are special assault rifles such as AK-74 and night vision goggle (NVG). Each Kitaipur personnel have the abilities to conduct operations on land, sea, and in the air.


Komando Cadangan Strategis TNI-AD (Kostrad)

Army Strategic Reserve Command

Kostrad as a part of Indonesian army is the biggest striking forces in Indonesia Armed Forces. Nowadays, Kostrad have almost 30.000 personnel with 34 battalion that divided in two infantry Division. The Kostrad 1st infantry division headquartered in Cilodong, West Java and 2nd infantry division headquartered in Malang, East Java. Every infantry divison lead by two star general and Kostrad commander in chief was a Lieutenant General with three stars in his shoulder. Each of the divisions contains airborne and infantry brigades; one cavalry brigade; two field artillery regiments; one Raider battalion and several combat support and service support units. In the future, Kostrad will have 3rd infantry division to cover eastern Indonesia region with headquartered in Sorong, West Papua.

KOSTRAD establish when Indonesia was dealing with the liberation of West Irian in 1960, and was formally constituted on 06 March 1961. Initially designated the Army General Reserve Corps, its name was changed to KOSTRAD in 1963. Major General Soeharto (later become Indonesia 2nd president) was the first Kostrad commander in chief and directly appointed by the president Soekarno.

These green-beret troops have never been absent from the various military operations, such as G-30-S/PKI (30 September Movement/Indonesian Communist Party), Trisula operation, the PGRS (Sarawak People's Guerrilla Force) in Sarawak, the PARAKU (North Kalimantan People's Force) in North Kalimantan, and Operation Seroja in East Timor.

Every Kostrad personnel trained with above regular troops qualification and becoming Kostrad identification for its personnel. Kostrad personnel also equipped with jungle knife (pisau rimba) that becomes Kostrad identifying mark. Chosen Kostrad personnel is recruited becomes Kostrad special forces like Raider battalion, Combat Reconnaissance Company (Kitaipur) or also recruited as an army special forces (Kopassus) with a para-commando training in Batujajar.


Satuan-81/ Penanggulangan Teror (Sat-81/Gultor)
Unit-81/ Anti-Terror

This unit is most famous for its anti-terror skills. Their first international mission was to release hostages at the Don Muang International Airport in Bangkok, Thailand in 1981. The Kopassus personnel who took part in this mission had trained for only three days with totally unfamiliar weapons, but brilliantly executed this fast-paced operation. One of the Kopassus personnel, Ahmad Kirang was shot dead by the hijackers. All the hijackers were killed and all the hostages were saved.
To anticipate the increase of airplane hijacking and terrorism act in the future, on June 30, 1982 the new unit, called Detachement-81 (Den-81) Kopassandha, was formally established with Major Luhut B. Panjaitan as its first commander and Captain Prabowo Subianto as its first vice commander. Both of these officers had been sent to Germans GSG-9 (Grenzschutzgruppe-9) school to learn about the anti-terror techniques. Later, Den-81 was changed into Unit-81 Counter-Terror (Sat-81 Gultor). From 1995-2001, Den-81 became the Group 5 counter-terror in the new Kopassus structure.
The most recent successful operation conducted by Sat-81 Gultor is the rescue of 26 hostages from Kelly Kwalik separatist movement in Irian Jaya on May 15, 1996. However, Operation Woyla is still the biggest and internationally well-known operation that Indonesian Army ever experienced.
Unit that under Sat-81 control is 811 battalion (special action) and 812 battalion (combat support). Currently, there is no exact information of the number of troops in Sat-81 Gultor. For much of its history Sat-81 was equipped with the most advanced and complete technology of all the units in the Indonesian armed forces. The rule is that Sat-81 equipment and weapon damaged, was not repaired but instead updated to the new model.


Komando Pasukan Khusus (Kopassus)
Army Special Forces Command

On April 15, 1952, Colonel Alex Kawilarang laid the foundation for Kesatuan Komando Tentara Territorium III/Siliwangi (Kesko TT), the early name of Kopassus. It later went through no less than five name changes, going from Kesko TT to KKAD, RPKAD, Kopasandha, and finally Kopassus. The early headquartered was in Bandung, the first generation of Kopassus was only around a hundred soldiers or one company. Due to M Idjon Djanbi the first commander of Kopassus, the unit adopted a Red Beret similar to the Dutch Special Forces (KST), which is still in use by the present Kopassus.
The Kopassus is composed of five groups with the headquarters in Cijantung, East Jakarta. A Colonel heads each group and all groups have para-commando qualified. Of note is the unusual nature of Group III, possibly also called Sandi Yudha or Combat Intelligence Group. The duties of these group specially ability to persuade people to do something, to create situations and also include attacking behind enemy lines (infiltration tactics). Group III also, reportedly, works with the Joint Intelligence Unit on interrogations, and carries out clandestine operations around the country.
The new organization is as follows:
• Group 1/Para Commando (Taktakan, Serang, Banten) with 3 battalions
• Group 2/Para Commando (Kandang Menjangan, Kartasura, Solo) with 3 batallions
• Group 3/Combat Intelligence (Cijantung, Jakarta)
• Unit-81/Counter Terror (Cijantung, Jakarta)
• Pusdikpassus / Special Forces Training Center (Batujajar, Bandung)
KOPASSUS is considered to be an elite force that operate in small size unit and famous with its quick-strike reaction. Kopassus has been involved in numerous military actions around Indonesia such as Trikora, Dwikora, Seroja and combat operations against separatist movement. This force has special qualification such as direct action, unconventional warfare, sabotage, counter-terrorism, and intelligence. Kopassus now considered as one of the best special forces units in the Pacific and Asia region with around 5.000 personnel. Every Kopassus soldier also have black FS dagger knife made by Carl Schlieper Germany.